Flamingo Trivia

The greater flamingo is the largest flamingo species.  – Photo © William Warby
Updated May 25, 2016.

Flamingos are the most instantly recognizable wading birds in the world, but what makes them so special that they capture the hearts of birders and non-birders alike? These fun flamingo facts and trivia may surprise you!

Flamingo Trivia

  1. There are only six species of flamingos in the world, though several of those species have subspecies divisions and could eventually be split into different unique species. Flamingos are found around the world from the Caribbean and South America to Africa, the Middle East and Europe. They are also popular guests in many zoos, aviaries, aquariums and botanical gardens well outside their native ranges.
  2. The word “flamingo” comes from the Spanish and Latin word “flamenco” which means fire, and refers to the bright color of the birds’ feathers. Not all flamingos are brightly colored, however, and some of the birds are mostly gray or white. The strength of a flamingo’s coloration comes from its diet.
  3. While flamingos are considered wading birds, the same classification as herons, egrets and cranes, they are most closely related to grebes genetically.
  1. Flamingos are strong but rare swimmers and powerful fliers, even though they’re most often seen just wading. Flamingos do fly very well, however, and many flamingos migrate or regularly fly between the best food sources and nesting grounds.
  2. When flying in a flock, the top speed of a flamingo can be as high as 35 miles per hour. They can seem ungainly or clumsy in flight, however, because their long necks stretch out in front of their bodies and their long legs dangle well past their short tails.
  3. Flamingos hold their bills upside down while feeding, often for several hours a day, so they can filter out their food while skimming the water. They may seem to nibble or scoop at the surface of the water as they strain out small bits of algae, insects, brine shrimp and other food material.
  4. A flamingo chick’s bill is small and straight, without any distinct color patches. After a few months, their growing bills will develop the distinct “break” curve and they will be eating mostly on their own.
  5. Flamingos are monogamous birds that lay only a single egg each year. If that egg is lost or damaged, they do not typically lay a replacement. If a flamingo colony is ransacked by predators or hit with a natural disaster, it can take several years for the birds to recover and for their population to grow again.
  6. Parent flamingos feed their chicks exclusively crop milk for 5-12 days after hatching, though young flamingos may continue to eat crop milk for up to two months as their bills develop. This high fat, high protein substance is not like mammalian milk, but is excellent nutrition for growing chicks. Parent flamingos produce crop milk in their digestive tracts and regurgitate it to feed their young.
  7. Flamingo chicks are born gray or white and take up to three years to reach their mature pink, orange or red plumage. Their young feathers are much less structured and fluffy than adult plumage, but that down provides excellent insulation to help keep baby flamingos warm.
  8. The pink, orange or red color of a flamingo’s feathers is caused by carotenoid pigments in their food. A wild flamingo’s diet includes shrimp, plankton, algae and crustaceans skimmed from different water sources. In zoos and aviaries, captive flamingos are often fed a specialized diet that will help preserve and enhance their unique coloration.
  9. The greater flamingo is the largest flamingo species and can measure up to five feet tall when standing erect with its head raised, but only weighs a maximum of eight pounds. The lesser flamingo is the smallest and can reach three feet tall and typically weighs 3-6 pounds.
  10. A adult flamingo’s legs can be 30-50 inches long, which is longer than their entire body. Flamingos often stand on one leg to preserve body heat, tucking the other leg into their plumage so it is kept warm.
  11. The backward bending “knee” of a flamingo’s leg is actually the bird’s ankle. The actual knee is very close to the body and is not visible through the bird’s plumage.
  12. Flamingos are gregarious birds that do not do well in very small flocks. While a typical flock is only several dozen birds, flocks of up to a million or more have been recorded. Flamingos use these tremendous flocks as a safety measure against predators, and larger flocks are more stable for population growth and breeding success.
  13. A flock of flamingos is called a stand, colony, regiment or a flamboyance.
  14. Flamingos have a wild lifespan of 20-30 years, but in captivity have been recorded as living up to 50 years or longer. Captive flamingos typically live longer because they are not subject to predators, poachers or other threats, and they receive excellent veterinary care and abundant food.
  15. The Andean flamingo is the most threatened of all flamingo species, and estimates show there to be only 30,000 of the birds left in the wild. Habitat preservation will be critical to keep these birds thriving in the wild, and captive breeding programs can help supplement wild populations.
  16. The most prominent threats to flamingos include predators, habitat loss and poaching for decorative feathers. In some areas, humans hunt flamingos to gather eggs as food or to harvest their tongues as meat.
  17. Don Featherstone of Massachusetts is the inventor of the pink plastic lawn flamingo, which has been gracing lawns since 1957. The “official” pink flamingo is from Union Products, though the patents and official molds for the classic lawn birds have been transferred to different companies. These birds are still in production today.

4th Of July Trivia Facts

 

To many revelers, the Fourth of July is an excuse to relax under the hot sun with cold beers while indulging in high-calorie foods, but the history of America’s Independence Day is richer than anything on their holiday bill of fare. Here are 15 fun facts about the U.S. birthday likely to surprise family and friends:

1. How many people signed the Declaration of Independence on the Fourth of July? Two.

2. Which day did most signers of the Declaration of Independence actually put their John Hancocks on the document? Aug. 2, 1776.

3. Which president was born on the Fourth of July? Calvin Coolidge, the 30th president, in 1872.

4. How did the Nathan’s Fourth of July Hot Dog Contest begin? Legend has it that four immigrants got into an argument over who was more patriotic. They decided to settle the disagreement by seeing who could eat the most wieners.

5. When did the Fourth of July become a paid federal holiday? 1938.

6. Is there something written on the back of the Declaration of Independence? Yes. Appearing upside down on the bottom of the document are the words, “Original Declaration of Independence dated 4th July 1776.” The memo may have been written as a label.

7. Did you know three of the first five U.S. presidents died on the Fourth of July? John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe all died on Independence Day. Even weirder, Adams, the second president, and Jefferson, the third, died on the same day in 1826, the country’s 50th birthday.

8. Are there Fourth of July celebrations in other countries? Yes. They are featured in Denmark and Norway, as well as Britain, Portugal and Sweden. Danes and Norwegians celebrate the American Independence Day because so many thousands of their fellow citizens emigrated to the U.S. in the early 1900s. In the other European countries, American military bases host celebrations, which are supported by local businesses as a way to boost tourism.

9. Did you know John Adams would think the country is celebrating Independence Day on the wrong day? Adams foresaw that July 2, the day the Second Continental Congress voted to declare independence from Britain, would be the day on which Americans would celebrate their freedom. “The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America,” Adams wrote.

10. When were fireworks first used to celebrate the Fourth of July? The initial fireworks were ignited in 1777 to commemorate the first anniversary of the American colonies’ Declaration of Independence.

11. Which newspaper first printed the Declaration of Independence? The Pennsylvania Evening Post.

12. Which country gained independence from the U.S. on the Fourth of July? The Philippines did so in 1946.

13. There was a baseball pitcher who threw a 4-0 no-hitter against the Boston Red Sox July 4, 1983: Who was it? The New York Yankees’ Dave Righetti authored this gem. It was the first no-hitter tossed at Yankee Stadium in 27 years.

14. Which president was the first to hold a Fourth of July celebration at the White House? Thomas Jefferson.

15. How many people lived in the American colonies when the Declaration of Independence was signed? 2.5 million.

88824090

Indian Why the Turkey Gobbles

According to Cherokee legends, in the old days, Grouse had a good voice and Turkey had none. Therefore Turkey asked Grouse to teach him. But Grouse wanted pay, so Turkey promised to give him some feathers for a collar. That is how the Grouse got his collar of turkey feathers.

 

So the Grouse began to teach Turkey. At last Grouse said, “Now you must try your voice. You must halloo.”

Turkey said, “Yes.”

Grouse said, “I’ll stand on this hollow log, and when I tap on it, you must halloo as loudly as you can.”

So Grouse climbed upon a log, ready to tap on it, but when he did so, Turkey became so excited that when he opened his mouth, he only said, “Gobble, gobble, gobble!

That is why the Turkey gobbles whenever he hears a noise.

by http://www.aaanativearts.com

Turkey Trivia

Find fast facts about wild and domesticated turkeys in the United States.

wild turkey

How the Turkey Got Its Name

How the Turkey Got Its Name

There are a number of explanations for the origin of the name of Thanksgiving’s favorite dinner guest. Some believe Christopher Columbus thought that the land he discovered was connected to India, and believed the bird he discovered (the turkey) was a type of peacock. He therefore called it ‘tuka,’ which is ‘peacock’ in Tamil, an Indian language.

Though the turkey is actually a type of pheasant, one can’t blame the explorer for trying.

The Native American name for turkey is ‘firkee’; some say this is how turkeys got their name. Simple facts, however, sometimes produce the best answers—when a turkey is scared, it makes a “turk, turk, turk” noise.

Turkey Facts

  • At one time, the turkey and the bald eagle were each considered as the national symbol of America. Benjamin Franklin was one of those who argued passionately on behalf of the turkey. Franklin felt the turkey, although “vain and silly”, was a better choice than the bald eagle, whom he felt was “a coward”.
  • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, more than 45 million turkeys are cooked and eaten in the U.S. at Thanksgiving—that’s one sixth of all turkeys sold in the U.S. each year. American per capita consumption of turkeys has soared from 8.3 pounds in 1975 to 18.5 pounds in 1997. Ten years later, the number dropped in 2007 to 13.8 pounds.
  • In 2011, more than 248 million turkeys were expected to be raised with an average liveweight per bird of 28 pounds with nearly 6 billion pounds of turkey processed. By contrast, in 1970, only 105 million birds were raised with an average liveweight of 17 pounds and 1.5 billion pounds processed. The turkeys produced in 2010 together weighed 7.11 billion pounds and were valued at $4.37 billion.
  • In 2002, retail sales of turkey was approximately $3.6 billion. In 2010, sales reached $4.37 billion.
  • Age is a determining factor in taste. Old, large males are preferable to young toms (males) as tom meat is stringy. The opposite is true for females: old hens are tougher birds.
  • A turkey under sixteen weeks of age is called a fryer, while a young roaster is five to seven months old.
  • Turkeys are the only breed of poultry native to the Western Hemisphere.
  • Turkeys have great hearing, but no external ears. They can also see in color, and have excellent visual acuity and a wide field of vision (about 270 degrees), which makes sneaking up on them difficult. However, turkeys have a poor sense of smell (what’s cooking?), but an excellent sense of taste.
  • Domesticated turkeys cannot fly. Wild turkeys, however, can fly for short distances at speeds up to 55 miles per hour. They can also reach speeds of 25 miles per hour on the ground.
  • Turkeys sometimes spend the night in trees.
  • Turkeys can have heart attacks: turkeys in fields near the Air Force test areas over which the sound barrier was broken were known to drop dead from the shock of passing jets
  • The ballroom dance known as the Turkey Trot was named for the short, jerky steps a turkey makes.

Trivia about Chocolate

Trivia about chocolate

(41 facts)
A 1.5 oz. milk chocolate bar has only 220 calories.
A 1.75 oz. serving of potato chips has 230 calories.

A recent study indicates when men crave food, they tend to crave fat and salt. When women crave food, they tend to desire chocolate.

American and Russian space flights have always included chocolate.

American chocolate manufacturers use about 1.5 billion pounds of milk — only surpassed by the cheese and ice cream industries.

Americans consumed over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate in 2001, which is almost half of the total world’s production.

Aztec emperor Montezuma drank 50 golden goblets of hot chocolate every day. It was thick, dyed red and flavored with chili peppers.

Bittersweet chocolate is what is usually called for in baking. It contains more chocolate liquor (at least 35%) and less sugar than sweet chocolate. Semisweet chocolate contains 15% – 35% chocolate liquor.

Caffeine: there are 100 to 150 milligrams of caffeine in an eight-ounce cup of brewed coffee, 10 milligrams in a six-ounce cup of cocoa, 5 to 10 milligrams in one ounce of bittersweet chocolate, and 5 milligrams in one ounce of milk chocolate.

Chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substance that is reputed to stimulate the same reaction in the body as falling in love.

Chocolate manufacturers currently use 40 percent of the world’s almonds and 20 percent of the world’s peanuts.

Chocolate syrup was used for blood in the famous 45 second shower scene in Alfred Hitchcock’s movie, Psycho, which actually took 7 days to shoot.

Chocolate Timeline:
1824: John Cadbury, an English Quaker, begins roasting and grinding chocolate beans to sell in his tea and coffee shop. In 1842 Cadbury’s Chocolate Company in England creates the first chocolate bar.
1875: A Swiss chocolate maker, Daniel Peter, mixes Henri Nestle’s con- densed milk with chocolate and the two men found a company to manufacture the first milk chocolate.
1894: Milton Hershey adds a line of chocolate to his caramel manufacturing business. Soon he invents the Hershey Bar by experimenting with milk chocolate. Hershey’s Cocoa appears next.
1896: Leonard Hershfield invents the Tootsie Roll, named after his daughter.
1897: Brownies are first mentioned in print, listed for sale in the Sears, Roebuck and Co. catalogue.
About 1900: A machine called the enrober is invented to replace the task of hand-dipping chocolate.
1930: Franklin Mars invents the Snickers Bar.
1939: Nestle introduces semisweet chocolate morsels.
1940: The Mars company invents M&M’s for soldiers going to World War II.

Chocolate was introduced into the United States in 1765 when cocoa beans were brought from the West Indies to Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Cocoa butter is the natural fat of the cocoa bean. It has a delicate chocolate aroma, but is very bitter tasting. It is used to give body, smoothness, and flavor to eating chocolate.

Cole Porter got a kick from fudge. He had nine pounds of it shipped to him each month from his hometown.

Columbus brought cacao (chocolate) beans back to Spain on his fourth voyage in 1502.

Cultivation of cacao trees can occur only in tropical climates, 20 degrees north or south of the equator. Principal growing areas include West Africa, Brazil, Ecuador and the Indies. Generally, it takes five years before trees begin bearing fruit in the form of pods. Each pod contains an average of 20 to 40 cream-colored cocoa beans. Nearly 400 beans are required to make a pound of chocolate liquor, the semi-liquid mass produced by grinding the beans. A non-alcoholic substance, chocolate liquor is the basis of all chocolate and cocoa products.

German chocolate cake did not originate in Germany. In 1852, Sam German developed a sweet baking bar for Baker’s Chocolate Co. The product was named in honor of him — Baker’s German’s Sweet Chocolate.

Hawaii is the only US state that grows cacao beans to produce chocolate.

In 1900, Queen Victoria sent her New Year’s greetings to the British troops stationed in South Africa during the Boer War in the form of a specially molded chocolate bar.

In Hershey, Pennsylvania, the streetlights along “Chocolate Avenue” are in the shape of Hershey Kisses.

In the United States, approximately seven billion pounds of chocolate and candy are manufactured each year.

It’s a common myth that chocolate aggravates acne. Experiments conducted at the University of Pennsylvania and the U.S. Naval Academy found that consumption of chocolate — even frequent daily dietary intake — had no effect on the incidence of acne. Professional dermatologists today do not link acne with diet.

One plain milk chocolate candy bar has more protein than a banana.

Per capita, the Irish eat more chocolate than Americans, Swedes, Danes, French, and Italians.

Pet parrots can eat virtually any common “people-food” except for chocolate and avocados. Both of these are highly toxic to the parrot and can be fatal.

Ten percent of U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of iron is found in one ounce of baking chocolate or cocoa. Chocolate also contains Vitamins A1, B1, B2, C, D and E as well as calcium, potassium, sodium and iron.

The American Heart Association recommends that daily cholesterol intake not exceed 300 mg. A chocolate bar is actually low in cholesterol. A 1.65 oz. bar contains only 12 mg! A one oz piece of cheddar cheese contains 30 mg of cholesterol – more than double the amount found in a chocolate bar.

The average person will consume 10,000 chocolate bars in a lifetime.

The botanical name of the chocolate plant is Theobramba cacao, which means “Food of the Gods.”

The daughter of confectioner Leo Hirschfield is commemorated in the name of the sweet he invented: Although his daughter’s real name was Clara, she went by the nickname Tootsie, and in her honor, her doting father named his chewy chocolate logs Tootsie Rolls.

The earliest cocoa plantations were established in 600 AD, in the Yucatan, by the Mayans.

The fruit of the Cacao tree grow directly from the trunk. They look like small melons, and the pulp inside contains 20 to 50 seeds or beans. It takes about 400 beans to make a pound of chocolate.

The Imperial torte, a square chocolate cake with five thin layers of almond paste, was created by a master pastry chef at the court of Emperor Franz Joseph (1830 – 1916).

The melting point of cocoa butter is just below the human body temperature — which is why it literally melts in your mouth.

The Swiss consume more chocolate per capita than any other nation on earth. That’s 22 pounds each compared to 11 pounds per person in the United States.

The term “white chocolate” is a misnomer. Under Fedaral Standards of Identity, real chocolate must contain chocolate liquor. “White” chocolate contains no chocolate liquor.

The theobromine in chocolate that stimulates the cardiac and nervous systems is too much for dogs, especially smaller pups. A chocolate bar is poisonous to dogs and can even be lethal.

The world’s first chocolate candy was produced in 1828 by Dutch chocolate-maker Conrad J. Van Houten. He pressed the fat from roasted cacao beans to produce cocoa butter, to which he added cocoa powder and sugar.

There were 1,040 US manufacturing establishments producing chocolate and cocoa products in 2001. These establishments employed 45,913 people and shipped $12 billion worth of goods that year. California led the nation in the number of chocolate and cocoa manufacturing establishments (with 116) followed by Pennsylvania (with 107).
* US Census Bureau, October, 2003

Trivia about chocolate

(41 facts)
A 1.5 oz. milk chocolate bar has only 220 calories.
A 1.75 oz. serving of potato chips has 230 calories.

A recent study indicates when men crave food, they tend to crave fat and salt. When women crave food, they tend to desire chocolate.

American and Russian space flights have always included chocolate.

American chocolate manufacturers use about 1.5 billion pounds of milk — only surpassed by the cheese and ice cream industries.

Americans consumed over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate in 2001, which is almost half of the total world’s production.

Aztec emperor Montezuma drank 50 golden goblets of hot chocolate every day. It was thick, dyed red and flavored with chili peppers.

Bittersweet chocolate is what is usually called for in baking. It contains more chocolate liquor (at least 35%) and less sugar than sweet chocolate. Semisweet chocolate contains 15% – 35% chocolate liquor.

CAFFEINE CONTENT
White chocolate 3ounce bar or 1 cup chips
Caffeine 0.0 mg
Theobromine 0.0 mg
Baking chocolate, unsweetened 1 ounce
Caffeine 57.120 mg
Theobromine 346.360 mg
Semisweet chocolate 1 ounce (chocolate chips)
Caffeine 17.577 mg
Theobromine 137.781mg
Milk Chocolate 1.55 ounce bar
Caffeine 11.440 mg
Theobromine 74.360 mg
Cocoa mix 1 envelope/3 heaping tsp
Caffeine 5.040 mg
Theobromine 169.680 mg
Cocoa powder, unsweetened 1 tbsp
Caffeine 12.420 mg
Theobromine 111.078 mg

Caffeine: there are 100 to 150 milligrams of caffeine in an eight-ounce cup of brewed coffee, 10 milligrams in a six-ounce cup of cocoa, 5 to 10 milligrams in one ounce of bittersweet chocolate, and 5 milligrams in one ounce of milk chocolate.

Chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substance that is reputed to stimulate the same reaction in the body as falling in love.

Chocolate manufacturers currently use 40 percent of the world’s almonds and 20 percent of the world’s peanuts.

Chocolate syrup was used for blood in the famous 45 second shower scene in Alfred Hitchcock’s movie, Psycho, which actually took 7 days to shoot.

Chocolate Timeline:
1824: John Cadbury, an English Quaker, begins roasting and grinding chocolate beans to sell in his tea and coffee shop. In 1842 Cadbury’s Chocolate Company in England creates the first chocolate bar.
1875: A Swiss chocolate maker, Daniel Peter, mixes Henri Nestle’s con- densed milk with chocolate and the two men found a company to manufacture the first milk chocolate.
1894: Milton Hershey adds a line of chocolate to his caramel manufacturing business. Soon he invents the Hershey Bar by experimenting with milk chocolate. Hershey’s Cocoa appears next.
1896: Leonard Hershfield invents the Tootsie Roll, named after his daughter.
1897: Brownies are first mentioned in print, listed for sale in the Sears, Roebuck and Co. catalogue.
About 1900: A machine called the enrober is invented to replace the task of hand-dipping chocolate.
1930: Franklin Mars invents the Snickers Bar.
1939: Nestle introduces semisweet chocolate morsels.
1940: The Mars company invents M&M’s for soldiers going to World War II.

Chocolate was introduced into the United States in 1765 when cocoa beans were brought from the West Indies to Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Cocoa butter is the natural fat of the cocoa bean. It has a delicate chocolate aroma, but is very bitter tasting. It is used to give body, smoothness, and flavor to eating chocolate.

Cole Porter got a kick from fudge. He had nine pounds of it shipped to him each month from his hometown.

Columbus brought cacao (chocolate) beans back to Spain on his fourth voyage in 1502.

Cultivation of cacao trees can occur only in tropical climates, 20 degrees north or south of the equator. Principal growing areas include West Africa, Brazil, Ecuador and the Indies. Generally, it takes five years before trees begin bearing fruit in the form of pods. Each pod contains an average of 20 to 40 cream-colored cocoa beans. Nearly 400 beans are required to make a pound of chocolate liquor, the semi-liquid mass produced by grinding the beans. A non-alcoholic substance, chocolate liquor is the basis of all chocolate and cocoa products.

German chocolate cake did not originate in Germany. In 1852, Sam German developed a sweet baking bar for Baker’s Chocolate Co. The product was named in honor of him — Baker’s German’s Sweet Chocolate.

Hawaii is the only US state that grows cacao beans to produce chocolate.

In 1900, Queen Victoria sent her New Year’s greetings to the British troops stationed in South Africa during the Boer War in the form of a specially molded chocolate bar.

In Hershey, Pennsylvania, the streetlights along “Chocolate Avenue” are in the shape of Hershey Kisses.

In the United States, approximately seven billion pounds of chocolate and candy are manufactured each year.

It’s a common myth that chocolate aggravates acne. Experiments conducted at the University of Pennsylvania and the U.S. Naval Academy found that consumption of chocolate — even frequent daily dietary intake — had no effect on the incidence of acne. Professional dermatologists today do not link acne with diet.

One plain milk chocolate candy bar has more protein than a banana.

Per capita, the Irish eat more chocolate than Americans, Swedes, Danes, French, and Italians.

Pet parrots can eat virtually any common “people-food” except for chocolate and avocados. Both of these are highly toxic to the parrot and can be fatal.

Ten percent of U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of iron is found in one ounce of baking chocolate or cocoa. Chocolate also contains Vitamins A1, B1, B2, C, D and E as well as calcium, potassium, sodium and iron.

The American Heart Association recommends that daily cholesterol intake not exceed 300 mg. A chocolate bar is actually low in cholesterol. A 1.65 oz. bar contains only 12 mg! A one oz piece of cheddar cheese contains 30 mg of cholesterol – more than double the amount found in a chocolate bar.

The average person will consume 10,000 chocolate bars in a lifetime.

The botanical name of the chocolate plant is Theobramba cacao, which means “Food of the Gods.”

The daughter of confectioner Leo Hirschfield is commemorated in the name of the sweet he invented: Although his daughter’s real name was Clara, she went by the nickname Tootsie, and in her honor, her doting father named his chewy chocolate logs Tootsie Rolls.

The earliest cocoa plantations were established in 600 AD, in the Yucatan, by the Mayans.

The fruit of the Cacao tree grow directly from the trunk. They look like small melons, and the pulp inside contains 20 to 50 seeds or beans. It takes about 400 beans to make a pound of chocolate.

The Imperial torte, a square chocolate cake with five thin layers of almond paste, was created by a master pastry chef at the court of Emperor Franz Joseph (1830 – 1916).

The melting point of cocoa butter is just below the human body temperature — which is why it literally melts in your mouth.

The Swiss consume more chocolate per capita than any other nation on earth. That’s 22 pounds each compared to 11 pounds per person in the United States.

The term “white chocolate” is a misnomer. Under Fedaral Standards of Identity, real chocolate must contain chocolate liquor. “White” chocolate contains no chocolate liquor.

The theobromine in chocolate that stimulates the cardiac and nervous systems is too much for dogs, especially smaller pups. A chocolate bar is poisonous to dogs and can even be lethal.

The world’s first chocolate candy was produced in 1828 by Dutch chocolate-maker Conrad J. Van Houten. He pressed the fat from roasted cacao beans to produce cocoa butter, to which he added cocoa powder and sugar.

There were 1,040 US manufacturing establishments producing chocolate and cocoa products in 2001. These establishments employed 45,913 people and shipped $12 billion worth of goods that year. California led the nation in the number of chocolate and cocoa manufacturing establishments (with 116) followed by Pennsylvania (with 107).
* US Census Bureau, October, 2003

Trivia about chocolate

(41 facts)
A 1.5 oz. milk chocolate bar has only 220 calories.
A 1.75 oz. serving of potato chips has 230 calories.

A recent study indicates when men crave food, they tend to crave fat and salt. When women crave food, they tend to desire chocolate.

American and Russian space flights have always included chocolate.

American chocolate manufacturers use about 1.5 billion pounds of milk — only surpassed by the cheese and ice cream industries.

Americans consumed over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate in 2001, which is almost half of the total world’s production.

Aztec emperor Montezuma drank 50 golden goblets of hot chocolate every day. It was thick, dyed red and flavored with chili peppers.

Bittersweet chocolate is what is usually called for in baking. It contains more chocolate liquor (at least 35%) and less sugar than sweet chocolate. Semisweet chocolate contains 15% – 35% chocolate liquor.

CAFFEINE CONTENT
White chocolate 3ounce bar or 1 cup chips
Caffeine 0.0 mg
Theobromine 0.0 mg
Baking chocolate, unsweetened 1 ounce
Caffeine 57.120 mg
Theobromine 346.360 mg
Semisweet chocolate 1 ounce (chocolate chips)
Caffeine 17.577 mg
Theobromine 137.781mg
Milk Chocolate 1.55 ounce bar
Caffeine 11.440 mg
Theobromine 74.360 mg
Cocoa mix 1 envelope/3 heaping tsp
Caffeine 5.040 mg
Theobromine 169.680 mg
Cocoa powder, unsweetened 1 tbsp
Caffeine 12.420 mg
Theobromine 111.078 mg

Caffeine: there are 100 to 150 milligrams of caffeine in an eight-ounce cup of brewed coffee, 10 milligrams in a six-ounce cup of cocoa, 5 to 10 milligrams in one ounce of bittersweet chocolate, and 5 milligrams in one ounce of milk chocolate.

Chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substance that is reputed to stimulate the same reaction in the body as falling in love.

Chocolate manufacturers currently use 40 percent of the world’s almonds and 20 percent of the world’s peanuts.

Chocolate syrup was used for blood in the famous 45 second shower scene in Alfred Hitchcock’s movie, Psycho, which actually took 7 days to shoot.

Chocolate Timeline:
1824: John Cadbury, an English Quaker, begins roasting and grinding chocolate beans to sell in his tea and coffee shop. In 1842 Cadbury’s Chocolate Company in England creates the first chocolate bar.
1875: A Swiss chocolate maker, Daniel Peter, mixes Henri Nestle’s con- densed milk with chocolate and the two men found a company to manufacture the first milk chocolate.
1894: Milton Hershey adds a line of chocolate to his caramel manufacturing business. Soon he invents the Hershey Bar by experimenting with milk chocolate. Hershey’s Cocoa appears next.
1896: Leonard Hershfield invents the Tootsie Roll, named after his daughter.
1897: Brownies are first mentioned in print, listed for sale in the Sears, Roebuck and Co. catalogue.
About 1900: A machine called the enrober is invented to replace the task of hand-dipping chocolate.
1930: Franklin Mars invents the Snickers Bar.
1939: Nestle introduces semisweet chocolate morsels.
1940: The Mars company invents M&M’s for soldiers going to World War II.

Chocolate was introduced into the United States in 1765 when cocoa beans were brought from the West Indies to Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Cocoa butter is the natural fat of the cocoa bean. It has a delicate chocolate aroma, but is very bitter tasting. It is used to give body, smoothness, and flavor to eating chocolate.

Cole Porter got a kick from fudge. He had nine pounds of it shipped to him each month from his hometown.

Columbus brought cacao (chocolate) beans back to Spain on his fourth voyage in 1502.

Cultivation of cacao trees can occur only in tropical climates, 20 degrees north or south of the equator. Principal growing areas include West Africa, Brazil, Ecuador and the Indies. Generally, it takes five years before trees begin bearing fruit in the form of pods. Each pod contains an average of 20 to 40 cream-colored cocoa beans. Nearly 400 beans are required to make a pound of chocolate liquor, the semi-liquid mass produced by grinding the beans. A non-alcoholic substance, chocolate liquor is the basis of all chocolate and cocoa products.

German chocolate cake did not originate in Germany. In 1852, Sam German developed a sweet baking bar for Baker’s Chocolate Co. The product was named in honor of him — Baker’s German’s Sweet Chocolate.

Hawaii is the only US state that grows cacao beans to produce chocolate.

In 1900, Queen Victoria sent her New Year’s greetings to the British troops stationed in South Africa during the Boer War in the form of a specially molded chocolate bar.

In Hershey, Pennsylvania, the streetlights along “Chocolate Avenue” are in the shape of Hershey Kisses.

In the United States, approximately seven billion pounds of chocolate and candy are manufactured each year.

It’s a common myth that chocolate aggravates acne. Experiments conducted at the University of Pennsylvania and the U.S. Naval Academy found that consumption of chocolate — even frequent daily dietary intake — had no effect on the incidence of acne. Professional dermatologists today do not link acne with diet.

One plain milk chocolate candy bar has more protein than a banana.

Per capita, the Irish eat more chocolate than Americans, Swedes, Danes, French, and Italians.

Pet parrots can eat virtually any common “people-food” except for chocolate and avocados. Both of these are highly toxic to the parrot and can be fatal.

Ten percent of U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of iron is found in one ounce of baking chocolate or cocoa. Chocolate also contains Vitamins A1, B1, B2, C, D and E as well as calcium, potassium, sodium and iron.

The American Heart Association recommends that daily cholesterol intake not exceed 300 mg. A chocolate bar is actually low in cholesterol. A 1.65 oz. bar contains only 12 mg! A one oz piece of cheddar cheese contains 30 mg of cholesterol – more than double the amount found in a chocolate bar.

The average person will consume 10,000 chocolate bars in a lifetime.

The botanical name of the chocolate plant is Theobramba cacao, which means “Food of the Gods.”

The daughter of confectioner Leo Hirschfield is commemorated in the name of the sweet he invented: Although his daughter’s real name was Clara, she went by the nickname Tootsie, and in her honor, her doting father named his chewy chocolate logs Tootsie Rolls.

The earliest cocoa plantations were established in 600 AD, in the Yucatan, by the Mayans.

The fruit of the Cacao tree grow directly from the trunk. They look like small melons, and the pulp inside contains 20 to 50 seeds or beans. It takes about 400 beans to make a pound of chocolate.

The Imperial torte, a square chocolate cake with five thin layers of almond paste, was created by a master pastry chef at the court of Emperor Franz Joseph (1830 – 1916).

The melting point of cocoa butter is just below the human body temperature — which is why it literally melts in your mouth.

The Swiss consume more chocolate per capita than any other nation on earth. That’s 22 pounds each compared to 11 pounds per person in the United States.

The term “white chocolate” is a misnomer. Under Fedaral Standards of Identity, real chocolate must contain chocolate liquor. “White” chocolate contains no chocolate liquor.

The theobromine in chocolate that stimulates the cardiac and nervous systems is too much for dogs, especially smaller pups. A chocolate bar is poisonous to dogs and can even be lethal.

The world’s first chocolate candy was produced in 1828 by Dutch chocolate-maker Conrad J. Van Houten. He pressed the fat from roasted cacao beans to produce cocoa butter, to which he added cocoa powder and sugar.

There were 1,040 US manufacturing establishments producing chocolate and cocoa products in 2001. These establishments employed 45,913 people and shipped $12 billion worth of goods that year. California led the nation in the number of chocolate and cocoa manufacturing establishments (with 116) followed by Pennsylvania (with 107).
* US Census Bureau, October, 2003

http://www.corsinet.com – Trivia

Trivia about coffee

trivia about coffe – Trivial Trivia Collections

 

Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death, and as sweet as love” – Turkish Proverb

52% of Americans drink coffee.

A acre of coffee trees can produce up to 10,000 pounds of coffee cherries. That amounts to approximately 2000 pounds of beans after hulling or milling.

A scientific report form the University of California found that the steam rising from a cup of coffee contains the same amounts of antioxidants as three oranges. The antioxidants are heterocyclic compounds which prevents cancer and heart disease. It’s good for you!

Adding sugar to coffee is believed to have started in 1715, in the court of King Louis XIV, the French monarch.

Advertisements for coffee in London in 1657 claimed that the beverage was a cure for scurvy, gout and other ills.

After the decaffeinating process, processing companies no longer throw the caffeine away; they sell it to pharmaceutical companies.

After they are roasted, and when the coffee beans begin to cool, they release about 700 chemical substances that make up the vaporizing aromas.

An arabica coffee tree can produce up to 12 pounds of coffee a year, depending on soil and climate.

Australians consume 60% more coffee than tea, a sixfold increase since 1940.

Beethoven who was a coffee lover, was so particular about his coffee that he always counted 60 beans each cup when he prepared his brew.

Before roasting, some green coffee beans are stored for years, and experts believe that certain beans improve with age, when stored properly.

Before the first French cafe in the late 1700’s, coffee was sold by street vendors in Europe, in the Arab fashion. The Arabs were the forerunners of the sidewalk espresso carts of today.

Brazil accounts for almost 1/3 of the world’s coffee production, producing over 3-1/3 billion pounds of coffee each year.

By 1850, the manual coffee grinder found its way to most upper middle class kitchens of the U.S.

Caffeine is on the International Olympic Committee list of prohibited substances. Athletes who test positive for more than 12 micrograms of caffeine per milliliter of urine may be banned from the Olympic Games. This level may be reached after drinking about 5 cups of coffee.

Citrus has been added to coffee for several hundred years.

Coffee as a medicine reached its highest and lowest point in the 1600’s in England. Wild medical contraptions to administer a mixture of coffee and an assortment of heated butter, honey, and oil, became treatments for the sick. Soon tea replaced coffee as the national beverage.

Coffee beans are similar to grapes that produce wine in that they are affected by the temperature, soil conditions, altitude, rainfall, drainage and degree of ripeness when picked.

Coffee is generally roasted between 400F and 425F. The longer it is roasted, the darker the roast. Roasting time is usually from ten to twenty minutes.

Coffee is graded according to 3 criteria: Bean quality (Altitude and Species) Quality of preparation Size of bean

Coffee is grown commercially in over forty-five countries throughout the world.

Coffee is the most popular beverage worldwide with over 400 billion cups consumed each year.

Coffee lends its popularity to the fact that just about all flavors mix well with it.

Coffee Recipe from: ‘Kitchen Directory and American Housewife’ (1844)
“Use a tablespoonful ground to a pint of boiling water [less than a quarter of what we would use today].
Boil in tin pot twenty to twenty-five minutes. If boiled longer it will not taste fresh and lively.
Let stand four or five minutes to settle, pour off grounds into a coffee pot or urn.
Put fish skin or isinglass size of a nine-pence in pot when put on to boil or else the white and shell of half an egg to a couple of quarts of coffee.”

Coffee represents 75% of all the caffeine consumed in the United States.

Coffee sacks are usually made of hemp and weigh approximately 132 pounds when they are full of green coffee beans. It takes over 600,000 beans to fill a coffee sack.

Coffee trees are evergreen and grow to heights above 15 feet but are normally pruned to around 8 feet in order to facilitate harvesting.

Coffee trees are self-pollinating

Coffee trees produce highly aromatic, short-lived flowers producing a scent between jasmine and orange. These blossoms produce cranberry-sized coffee cherries. It takes four to five years to yield a commercial harvest.

Coffee was first known in Europe as Arabian Wine.

Coffee, along with beer and peanut butter, is on the national list of the “ten most recognizable odors.”

Coffee, as a world commodity, is second only to oil.

Commercially flavored coffee beans are flavored after they are roasted and partially cooled to around 100 degrees. Then the flavors applied, when the coffee beans’ pores are open and therefore more receptive to flavor absorption.

Dark roasted coffees actually have LESS caffeine than medium roasts. The longer a coffee is roasted, the more caffeine burns off during the process.

During the American Civil War the Union soldiers were issued eight pounds of ground roasted coffee as part of their personal ration of one hundred pounds of food. And they had another choice: ten pounds of green coffee beans.

During World War II the U.S. government used 260 million pounds of instant coffee.

Finely grinding coffee beans and boiling them in water is still known as “Turkish Coffee.” It is still made this way today in Turkey and Greece or anywhere else Turkish Coffee is served.

Flavored coffees are created after the roasting process by applying flavored oils specially created to use on coffee beans.

Frederick the great had his coffee made with champagne and a bit of mustard.

Hard Bean means the coffee was grown at an altitude above 5000 feet.

Hawaii is the only state of the United States in which coffee is commercially grown. Hawaii features an annual Kona Festival, coffee picking contest. Each year the winner becomes a state celebrity. In Hawaii coffee is harvested between November and April.

Hills Brothers Ground Vacuum Packed Coffee was first introduced in 1900.

Iced coffee in a can has been popular in Japan since 1945.

If you like your espresso coffee sweet, you should use granulated sugar, which dissolves more quickly, rather than sugar cubes; white sugar rather than brown sugar or candy; and real sugar rather than sweeteners which alter the taste of the coffee.

In 1670, Dorothy Jones of Boston was granted a license to sell coffee, and so became the first American coffee trader.

In 1727, as a result of seedlings smuggled from Paris, coffee plants first were cultivated in Brazil. Brazil is presently by far the world’s largest producer of coffee.

In 1900, coffee was often delivered door-to-door in the United States, by horse-pulled wagons.

In 1990, over 4 billion dollars of coffee was imported into the United States.

In early America, coffee was usually taken between meals and after dinner.

In Italy, espresso is considered so essential to daily life that the price is regulated by the government.

In Japan, coffee shops are called Kissaten.

In Sumatra, workers on coffee plantations gather the world’s most expensive coffee by following a gourmet marsupial who consumes only the choicest coffee beans. By picking through what he excretes, they obtain the world’s most expensive coffee -‘Kopi Luwak’, which sells for over $100 per pound.

In the 14th century, the Arabs started to cultivate coffee plants. The first commercially grown and harvested coffee originated in the Arabian Peninsula near the port of Mocha.

In the 16th century, Turkish women could divorce their husbands if the man failed to keep his family’s pot filled with coffee.

In the last three centuries, 90% of all people living in the Western world have switched from tea to coffee.

In the year 1763, there were over 200 coffee shops in Venice.

In the year 1790, there were two firsts in the United States; the first wholesale coffee roasting company, and the first newspaper advertisement featuring coffee.

Irish cream and Hazelnut are the most popular whole bean coffee flavorings.

It was during the 1600’s that the first coffee mill made its debut in London.

Italians do not drink espresso during meals. It is considered to be a separate event and is given its own time.

Italy now has over 200,000 coffee bars, and still growing.

Jamaica Blue Mountain is often regarded as the best coffee in the world.

Japan ranks Number 3 in the world for coffee consumption.

Large doses of coffee can be lethal. Ten grams, or 100 cups over 4 hours, can kill the average human.

Latte is the Italian word for milk. So if you request a latte’ in Italy, you’ll be served a glass of milk.

Lloyd’s of London began as Edward Lloyd’s coffeehouse.

Milk as an additive to coffee became popular in the 1680’s, when a French physician recommended that cafe au lait be used for medicinal purposes.

Modern coffee brewing methods use approximately 200° water.

October 1st is the official Coffee Day in Japan.

Only about 20% of harvested coffee beans are considered to be a premium bean of the highest quality.

Over 10,000 coffee cafes plus several thousand vending machines with both hot and cold coffee serve the needs of Tokyo alone.

Over 5 million people in Brazil are employed by the coffee trade. Most of those are involved with the cultivation and harvesting of more than 3 billion coffee plants.

Over 53 countries grow coffee worldwide, but all of them lie along the equator between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Over-roasted coffee beans are very flammable during the roasting process.

Raw coffee beans, soaked in water and spices, are chewed like candy in many parts of Africa.

Regular coffee drinkers have about one-third less asthma symptoms than those non-coffee drinkers. So says a Harvard researcher who studied 20,000 people.

Retail espresso vendors report an increase in decaffeinated sales in the month of January due to New Year’s resolutions to decrease caffeine intake.

Roasted coffee beans start to lose small amounts of flavor within two weeks. Ground coffee begins to lose its flavor in one hour. Brewed coffee and espresso begins to lose flavor within minutes.

Scandinavia has the world’s highest per capita annual coffee consumption, 26.4 pounds. Italy has an annual consumption per capita of only 10 pounds.

Special studies conducted about the human body revealed it will usually absorb up to about 300 milligrams of caffeine at a given time. About 4 normal cups. Additional amounts are just cast off, providing no further stimulation. Also, the human body dissipates 20% of the caffeine in the system each hour.

The 2,000 Arabica coffee cherries it takes to make a roasted pound of coffee are normally picked by hand as they ripen. Since each cherry contains two beans, it takes about 4,000 Arabica beans to make a pound of roasted coffee.

The Arabica is the original coffee plant. It still grows wild in Ethiopia. The arabica coffee tree is an evergreen and in the wild will grow to a height between 14 and 20 feet.

The Arabs are generally believed to be the first to brew coffee.

The aroma and flavor derived from coffee is a result of the little beads of the oily substance called coffee essence, coffeol, or coffee oil. This is not an actual oil since it dissolves in water.

The average age of an Italian barista is 48 years old. A barista is a respected job title in Italy.

The average annual coffee consumption of the American adult is 26.7 gallons, or over 400 cups.

The average cup of coffee contains more than 1000 different chemical components, none of which is tasted in isolation but only as part of the overall flavor.

The Civil War in the United States elevated the popularity of coffee to new heights. Soldiers went to war with coffee beans as a primary ration.

The coffee filter was invented in 1908 by a German homemaker, Melitta Benz, when she lined a tin cup with blotter paper to filter the coffee grinds.

The coffee tree produces its first full crop when it is about 5 years old. Thereafter it produces consistently for 15 or 20 years.

The drip pot was invented by a Frenchman around 1800.

The Europeans first added chocolate to their coffee in the 1600’s.

The first coffee drinkers, the Arabs, flavored their coffee with spices during the brewing process.

The first commercial espresso machine was manufactured in Italy in 1906.

The first Parisian cafe opened in 1689 to serve coffee.

The French philosopher, Voltaire, reportedly drank fifty cups of coffee a day.

The heavy tea tax imposed on the colonies in 1773, which caused the “Boston Tea Party,” resulted in America switching from tea to coffee. Drinking coffee was an expression of freedom.

The largest coffee importer center in the U.S. is located in the city of New Orleans, LA.

The most widely accepted legend associated to the discovery of coffee is of the goatherder named Kaldi of Ethiopia. Around the year 800-850 A.D., Kaldi was amazed as he noticed his goats behaving in a frisky manner after eating the leaves and berries of a coffee shrub. And, of course, he had to try them!

The United States is the world’s largest consumer of coffee, importing 16 to 20 million bags annually (2.5 million pounds), representing one-third of all coffee exported. More than half of the United States population consumes coffee. The typical coffee drinker has 3.4 cups of coffee per day. That translates into more than 450,000,000 cups of coffee daily.

The vast majority of coffee available to consumers are blends of different beans.

The word “tip” dates back to the old London coffeehouses. Conspicuously placed brass boxes etched with the inscription, “To Insure Promptness,” encouraged customers to pay for efficient service. The resulting acronym, TIP, has become a byword.

The word ‘cappuccino’ is the result of several derivations, the original of which began in 16th century. The Capuchin order of friars, established after 1525, played an important role in bringing Catholicism back to Reformation Europe. Its Italian name came from the long, pointed cowl, or cappuccino, derived from cappuccino, “hood,” that was worn as part of the order’s habit. The French version of cappuccino was capuchin, from which came English Capuchin. In Italian cappuccino went on to describe espresso coffee mixed or topped with steamed milk or cream, so called because the color of the coffee resembled the color of the habit of a Capuchin friar. The first use of cappuccino in English is recorded in 1948 in a work about San Francisco. There is also the story line that says that the term comes from the fact that the coffee is dark, like the monk’s robe, and the cap is likened to the color of the monk’s head.

There are about 30 milligrams of caffeine in the average chocolate bar, while a cup of coffee contains around 100 to 150 milligrams.

Those British are sophisticated people, in almost everything except their choice of coffee. They still drink instant ten-to-one over fresh brewed.

Turkey began to roast and grind the coffee bean in the 13th Century, and some 300 years later, in the 1500’s, the country had become the chief distributor of coffee, with markets established in Egypt, Syria, Persia, and Venice, Italy.

Until the 18th century coffee was almost always boiled.

Until the late 1800’s, people roasted their coffee at home. Popcorn poppers and stove-top frying pans were favored.

When a coffee seed is planted, it takes five years to yield consumable fruit.

William Penn purchased a pound of coffee in New York in 1683 for $4.68.

Animal Trivia 5

animal trivia, uncommon facts about animals – Trivial Trivia Collections

The largest Great White Shark ever caught measured 37 feet and weighed 24,000 pounds. It was found in a herring weir in New Brunswick in 1930.The largest pig on record was a Poland-China hog named Big Bill, who weighed 2,552 lbs.The last member of the famous Bonaparte family, Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, died in 1945, of injuries sustained from tripping over his dog’s leash.

The male penguin incubates the single egg laid by his mate. During the two month period he does not eat, and will lose up to 40% of his body weight.

The most frequently seen birds at feeders across North America last winter were the Dark-eyed Junco, House Finch and American goldfinch, along with downy woodpeckers, blue jays, mourning doves, black-capped chickadees, house sparrows, northern cardinals and european starlings.

The mouse is the most common mammal in the US.

The name of the dog from “The Grinch Who Stole Christmas” is Max.

The name of the dog on the Cracker Jack box is Bingo.

The only dog to ever appear in a Shakespearean play was Crab in The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The only domestic animal not mentioned in the Bible is the cat.

The Pacific Giant Octopus, the largest octopus in the world, grows from the size of pea to a 150 pound behemoth potentially 30 feet across in only two years, its entire life-span.

The penalty for killing a cat, 4,000 years ago in Egypt, was death.

The phrase “raining cats and dogs” originated in 17th Century England. During heavy downpours of rain, many of these poor animals unfortunately drowned and their bodies would be seen floating in the rain torrents that raced through the streets. The situation gave the appearance that it had literally rained “cats and dogs” and led to the current expression.

The pigmy shrew – a relative of the mole – is the smallest mammal in North America. It weighs 1/14 ounce – less than a dime.

The poison-arrow frog has enough poison to kill about 2,200 people.

The poisonous copperhead snake smells like fresh cut cucumbers.

The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History houses the world’s largest shell collection, some 15 million specimens. A smaller museum in Sanibel, Florida owns a mere 2 million shells and claims to be the worlds only museum devoted solely to mollusks.

The term “dog days” has nothing to do with dogs. It dates back to Roman times, when it was believed that Sirius, the Dog Star, added its heat to that of the sun from July3 to August 11, creating exceptionally high temperatures. The Romans called the period dies caniculares, or “days of the dog.”

The turbot fish lays approximately 14 million eggs during its lifetime.

The turkey was named for what was wrongly thought to be its country of origin.

The underside of a horse’s hoof is called a frog. The frog peels off several times a year with new growth.

The viscera of Japanese abalone can harbor a poisonous substance which causes a burning, stinging, prickling and itching over the entire body. It does not manifest itself until exposure to sunlight – if eaten outdoors in sunlight, symptoms occur quickly and suddenly.

The world record frog jump is 33 feet 5.5 inches over the course of 3 consecutive leaps, achieved in May 1977 by a South African sharp-nosed frog called Santjie.

The world’s largest mammal, the blue whale, weighs 50 tons at birth. Fully grown, it weighs as much as 150 tons.

The world’s largest rodent is the Capybara. An Amazon water hog that looks like a guinea pig, it can weigh more than 100 pounds.

The world’s smallest mammal is the bumblebee bat of Thailand, weighing less than a penny.

There are around 2,600 different species of frogs. They live on every continent except Antarctica.

There are more than 100 million dogs and cats in the United States. Americans spend more than 5.4 billion dollars on their pets each year.

There is no single cat called the panther. The name is commonly applied to the leopard, but it is also used to refer to the puma and the jaguar. A black panther is really a black leopard.

Tigers have striped skin, not just striped fur.

Turkeys originated in North and Central America, and evidence indicates that they have been around for over 10 million years.

Unlike most fish, electric eels cannot get enough oxygen from water. Approximately every five minutes, they must surface to breathe, or they will drown. Unlike most fish, they can swim both backwards and forwards.

Whales and dolphins can literally fall half asleep. Their brain hemispheres alternate sleeping, so the animals can continue to surface and breathe.

When a female horse and male donkey mate, the offspring is called a mule, but when a male horse and female donkey mate, the offspring is called a hinny.

When the Black Death swept across England one theory was that cats caused the plague. Thousands were slaughtered. Ironically, those that kept their cats were less affected, because they kept their houses clear of the real culprits, rats.

Worldwide, goats provide people with more meat and milk than any other domestic animal